October 30, 2003



Indonesia's Growing Demand For Dairy Products Offers Prospect For Imports


Executive Summary

Indonesia's growing demand for dairy products have outpaced the domestic production capability, leaving a wider window of opportunity for imported dairy products.  The short fall in domestic milk production is considered a problem that needs to be addressed by both the GOI and Indonesian dairy industry.  The GOI in concert with the industry continuously run several programs to encourage and increase productivity. 


However, the dairy industry must still continue to rely on milk solid imports, primarily NFDM to fulfil short domestic supplies. Dairy products are primarily consumed as powdered milk, sweetened condensed milk, and ready to drink milk. Today, as the overall dairy consumption has already returned to pre-crisis levels, U.S. NFDM which entered the market under food aid programs since 1999, has started to stimulate commercial transactions.  Especially due to significant price increases in 200, which has made U.S. milk powder more competitive. 


However, Australia and New Zealand, with an obvious freight advantage and a long history in the Indonesian market, are expected to continue dominating the market (at about 60 percent combined).



Indonesia's domestic milk supply is primarily sourced from approximately 120 dairy cooperatives, which consist of nearly 100,000 dairy farmers with 2-3 cows each. Ongoing problems of poor dairy cattle feeding systems, farm management, herd replacement quality, acquisition and distribution systems, and unfavorable weather has caused low productivity, poor milk quality, and a short lactating period for dairy cattle.  Post's total fresh fluid milk production forecast for CY03 is 420,000 MT, fulfilling about 30 percent of the total demand.


The GOI and the Indonesian milk industry association has initiated programs, such as providing technical assistance and soft loans, to support the Union of Indonesian Dairy Cooperatives.  However, the results of these programs have been discouraging, leaving the industry incapable of production growth rate and unable to keep up with growing demands.  Therefore, unless the dairy cattle number is significantly multiplied and dairy farming condition are significantly improved, the dairy industry/producers must continue to rely on milk solid imports.


Nonetheless, the Union of Indonesian Dairy Cooperatives ultimate goal is to improve domestic fresh fluid milk production by an average of 15 percent per year by 2010. The GOI estimates that Indonesia's milk demand will increase from 6 liters/capita (current demand) to 16 liters/capita in 2010 (total dairy consumption demand is estimated to reach 4 million MT), the population is also expected to climb to 245 million (the current population is approximately 215 million). 


Domestic fluid milk production is primarily used for whole milk powder production. Due to the extra long drought, post forecast FFDM production increased only 5 percent to 47,000 MT, while total use is expected to be 74,000 MT in CY03.  The shortage in domestic production and use will have to be met through imports, as in previous years.  Because domestic milk production is low, Indonesia does not produce any NFDM.  Domestic NFDM requirements are met entirely by imported products.



The Indonesian economic crisis in 1998, did not have a significant long-term impact on the domestic dairy industry.  Overall dairy consumption has already returned to pre-crisis levels.  Decentralization has caused economic and trade activities at the sub-district level to grow, which has positively affected the ability of middle to low-income population in rural areas to increase their consumption of dairy products.  In addition, the development of community health and nutrition awareness has played a role in the growth of dairy consumption by 10 percent in previous year.  As the economic situation and distribution infrastructure for dairy products improve, this growth will likely increase. In CY 03, total domestic consumption for NFDM and FFDM are expected to increase 12 percent to be 111,000 MT and 60,000 MT respectively. While total distribution including export and stock is expected to be 132,000 MT & 74,000 MT.


All dairy plants in Indonesia are currently located on the island of Java, making distribution of products outside of this island difficult, due to poor infrastructure such as refrigeration, transportation and roads.  70 percent of dairy products are only available and consumed in urban areas of Java.  The distribution of the remaining 30 percent of dairy products available on the market (for rural areas outside Java) are limited, and the high costs associated with distribution drive up consumer prices, making it too expensive for low income consumers to afford.


Dairy products primarily consumed as powdered milk (used for making cream, skim milk, infant and children formula, and formula for pregnant and lactating women), sweetened condensed milk, ready to drink milk (such as fresh milk, UHT, pasteurized and homogenized dairy mix), and a small portion for other dairy products (such as cheese, butter, ice cream, whey and yogurt). The middle-upper income population mainly consumes powdered milk and ready to drink milk products. 


The latest marketing trend to stimulate consumer growth (excluding raw material for industry) is the segmentation of specialized milk products, such as formulas and attractive variety size packaging for end customers. Heavy advertising has stimulated 13% increase in consumption for powdered milk and ready to drink milk consumption increased by 15%. The increasing number of working women has also influenced this category growth, which boost baby and kids formula sales.


On the other hand, sweetened condensed milk (SCM) has a wider market, as SCM is a more affordable dairy product available--production has surpassed pre-crisis levels, 245 MT in CY02, compared to 227 MT in CY01. Retail prices for dairy products are significantly influenced by the raw material prices, which are significantly influenced by the currency exchange rate. Besides the price of imported NFDM, the price of sugar (a key ingredient) plays a significant role in this price elevation. Sugar prices have gone up 50 percent the last year. As a result, the retail price for sweetened condensed milk, which contains 40 percent sugar, has increased 21 percent and the retail price powdered milk has increased approximately 16 percent.


On the contrary, in 2003, prices for dairy products increased at a slow pace of 5-10 percent on average.  Sweet condensed milk averaged a 3-5 percent increase, while ready-to-drink milk increased at a rate of 10-15 percent. Dairy product manufacturers managed to minimize price hikes by increasing production efficiency and sourcing lower cost ingredients.  Substitution of NFDM with whey powder, and substitution of FFDM with NFDM combined with AMF (anhydrous milk fat) produced more affordable new variety products that attract a wider consumer group.


Twenty percent of the market for dairy products consists of imported finished dairy products, such as pasteurized skim and full cream milk, milk formulas (for infant, children, pregnant and lactating women, elderly).  Imported powdered milk products are perceived as a high quality, specialized formulas, which carry premium prices.



As growth in domestic use is expected to outpace domestic production, the import demand for NFDM and FFDM are forecast to reach up to 10 percent or about 117,000 MT and 23,000 MT respectively in 2003.  The import duty on milk powder is 5 percent and value added tax is 10 percent (as a raw ingredient).


With an obvious freight advantage and long history in Indonesian market, Australia and New Zealand continue to dominate the Indonesian market for milk and dairy products.  In 2001, over 50% of the milk/products supply was imported from Australia and New Zealand. Their market share was even more significant in 2002 (60 percent market share combined).


However, the significant price increase of Australian and New Zealand milk powder due to the long drought has made US milk powder prices more competitive thus making it more favorable for import. As the result, US market share of NFDM & FFDM in the first quarter of CY 03 increased to 20 percent and 22 percent respectively, compared to CY 2002, the U.S. market share of NFDM & FFDM was only 13 percent and 0.15 percent respectively.


Beside price as determining factor, trade sources indicate that U.S. dairy products will have better chance of entering the market if there is a representative office in the country and if there are improvements in milk depots throughout the region to expedite communication and shipping time.


Industry sources report that powdered milk (NFDM and FFDM) from New Zealand were shipped to Indonesia solely for repackaging and a re-export to the Middle East (Iraq and Iran) as food aid. The program was coordinated among several Middle Eastern countries along with the New Zealand Dairy Board.  In 2002, this program accounted for exports of 13,000 MT of NFDM and 12,000 MT of FFDM.  Due to the latest situation in Iraq, this program is on hold there is no information about this program continuing.


Over the last three years, the Philippines was the second largest supplier of FFDM to Indonesia (over 6,300 MT in CY00, 8,500 MT in CY01 and approximately 9,300 MT in CY02).  However, according to post sources, the origin of the FFDM was actually from New Zealand and Australia, which were trans-shipped via the Philippines.



In the first to the second quarter of CY 03, NFDM prices (C&F) increased from an average of US$ 1350/MT to US$ 1700/MT due to low stocks in Australia, New Zealand, and Europe. This price has remained stagnant ever since.  


Locally produced milk prices ranged between Rp. 1700-1850/kg with 12 percent milk solid content, while import prices for similar milk solids are @ Rp. 1,800/kg, before adding the import duty (5%) and VAT (10%).  Thus, the local price remained comparable to average import prices. 



Indonesian milk consumption is relatively low at 6 to 7 liters, compare to Thailand-22 liters, Philippines-25 liters, or India-75 liters per capita per year. Domestic dairy consumption is forecasted to grow 12 percent in CY 03 with further targeted product segmentation such as baby to toddler formula, pregnant & lactating woman formula, elder formula, high calcium, low-fat milk and introduction of multi flavor milk such chocolate, honey, banana, strawberry, melon, and orange in various size and type of packaging. The dairy industry has also aggressively market their dairy products with drinking milk campaigns, advertisements, competition, price and gifts in packages to attract consumers.


The Indonesian dairy industry is dominated by five dairy manufacturers (Nutricia/ Sarihusada, Nestle Indonesia, Friesche Vlag Indonesia, Indomilk, and Ultrajaya), which account for 90 percent of the total sales volume in the country.  With the positive forecast for consumer demand, dairy product manufacturers are expanding their capacities.  Manufactures are also expanding their market to include exports of finished dairy products to countries in the region as well as Middle Eastern and African countries, as they enjoy low costs for land and labor.

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