April 25, 2014
Hog Pandemic: FMD, pleural pneumonia and pseudorabies (China Animal Disease Update)
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China Animal Disease Update (March 2014)
HOG PANDEMIC: FMD, pleural pneumonia and pseudorabies
"Number 5" disease is found in hog farms in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei and Sichuan. "Number 5" disease is commonly known as ulcer and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) which are caused by viral infection on cloven-hoofed animals. Hogs are prone to the disease, which is highly contagious and spread rapidly with 2 to 5 years of periodic pandemic. The virus causes high fever for two to three days and is followed by sores and blisters inside the mouth and on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness. It is reported that most farms do not use any medication to treat infected hogs.
In Henan, pig pleural pneumonia and PEDv are found in pigs weighing 80-120 catty (40-60kg).
In Shandong Yantai Longkou, pig pseudorabies disease is commonly found. The disease is mainly found in newborn piglets and mortality rate is very high. There is no way to treat this disease currently.
BROILER PANDEMIC: Rising temperature, haze exacerbated common broiler epidemics
Temperature began to rise in March and haze pollution remained severe in most of the Northern provinces, leading to difficulties in broiler breeding and the outbreak of common broiler epidemics.
Liaoning province: In Liaoning province, 8,000 30-day-old broilers suffered from the symptoms of dishevelled feathers, necking, swelling joints, and difficulty in standing, white loose stools and eventually died within two days. Escherichia coli, Airsacculitis and Renal hemorrhage are found in the dead broilers.
Farms carried out a series of immunisation programmes for Newcastle disease, influenza and bursal disease. Medication of Amoxilin Soluble Powder, Apramycin Sulfate and Enrofloxacin Soluble Powder are used in the treatment, but the effect is minimal. Local veterinarians recommended using Florfenicol, Doxycycline and anti-viral drugs at the same time.
Farms need to strengthen disinfection and ventilation of the farms, and severe cases have to be isolated for individual gavage or injection.
Jiangsu province: Besides, 6,000 40-day-old broilers suffered from diarrhoea in Jiangsu province. Farms first treated the infected broilers with Coccidia and Penicillin for three days. Black depression in proventriculus and slight intestinal edema are found in the infected broilers. Veterinarian suggested using anti-viral drugs together with proventriculitis as treatment. Farms have to pay attention to disinfection and enhance ventilation.
Shangdong & Henan province: In Shandong and Henan, respiratory tract disease, Escherichia coli, Airsacculitis are the most commonly seen. Farms mainly use Western and Chinese medication at the same time. Bad weather in Southern region brought about huge difficulty in broiler breeding. Respiratory tract disease and Coccidiosis are most commonly found.
DAIRY EPIDEMIC: No reported dairy cow disease
In March, there is no reported dairy cow disease in the transitional season from winter to spring. In the same period in 2013, there was an outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in China. Injection of medication to the infected dairy cattle was preferred over using feed medication. Anti-viral drugs called FMD pioneer (Lomefloxacin Hydrochloride Injection) was commonly used.
FMD is an airborne virus with air as the most important transmission media. Hence, the disease often spread rapidly and the large-scale propagation characteristic cause huge economic losses. The death rate of infected adult cattle is not high, between 1% and 3%. However, the mortality rate is high for calves, due to the occurrence of myocarditis and hemorrhagic colitis. According to regulations in China, all FMD-infected animals have to be culled immediately. This is followed by a series of measures including blockade, isolation, disinfection and destruction of diseased carcass.
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