MLBA6: December / January 2009
Natural and organic cured meat products: Manufacturing and safety
by Joseph Sebranek and James Bacus
The annual growth in the avail­ability of natural and organic foods around the world has been dramatic as producers and processors have responded to con­sumer demand for foods perceived to be "healthy" and "wholesome", even though many of the health-related claims have been difficult to substanti­ate scientifically.
The requirements that must be met for processed meats such as hams, ba­con, frankfurters and bologna to qual­ify as natural or organic have resulted in unique and unusual approaches to the development of these products. This is because, while "natural" and "organic" are two separate and distinct categories of meat and poultry prod­ucts in terms of USDA regulations and labels, neither of these product categories can be manufactured with added sodium (or potassium) nitrite or nitrate.
Since nitrate and/or nitrite create distinctive, unique properties that char­acterize cured meat, and because there is no known substitute for these com­pounds, products manufactured to sim­ulate cured meats but without added nitrite or nitrate, and without any other modifications, will be unattractive and atypical. However, the USDA permits the manufacture of uncured versions of typical cured meats according to the Code of Federal Regulations (9 CFR 319.2) (2006).
Thus, there is another category of processed meats, separate from "natu­ral" and "organic", and that category is "uncured".
The term "cured" relative to proc­essed meats is universally understood to mean the addition of nitrite or ni­trate with salt and other ingredients to meat for improved preservation (Pegg and Shahidi, 2000).
While several ingredients includ­ing sugar, spices, phosphates and other ingredients are typically included in cured meats, it is the addition of ni­trate/nitrite in one form or another that results in the distinctive characteristics of cured meat (Cassens, 1990). On the other hand, products that are similar but made without nitrite or nitrate, must be clearly labeled as "uncured."
The above are excerpts, full versions are only available in MEAT & LIVESTOCK Business Asia. For subscriptions enquiries, e-mail