FEED Business Worldwide - August 2012
Antibiotic resistance in poultry
by Nevin OKTAY1, Seran TEMELLÄ°2, Kamil Tayfun CARLI1
1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, UludaÄŸ University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa, TURKEY
2 Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, UludaÄŸ University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa, TURKEY
Enterococcus spp. can be encountered in different kinds of disease lesions in poultry, and can cause septicaemia and amyloid arthropathy (AA) in poultry.
There are only a few field and/or experimental studies related to Enterococcus species and arthropathy/arthritis in chickens and/or in poultry. Previous studies have observed encephalomalacia caused by Enterococcus durans (E. durans) in chicks. Wood et al. isolated Enterococcus fecorumfrom bone lesions of broiler chicks. Chadfield et al., in their 2 studies, showed the aetiological role of enterococci and Enterococcus hirae (E.hirae), respectively, in septicaemia cases in broilers.
Petersen et al. reported the isolation of normal and small colony variants of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) from field cases of AA in chickens. Steentjes et al. found that E. faecalis was responsible for AA in broiler breeders and was isolated in 77% of amyloid arthritic joints. In an experimental study by Ciftci, chickens inoculated with a gelatinase-positive E. faecalis strain by intra-articular and intravenous injections produced AA lesions at the rates of 65.2% and 75% respectively, and gelatinase, which is one of the virulence factors of E. faecalis, was reported as an important factor for developing AA in chickens.
Another experimental study by Sevimli et al., demonstrated that excessive consumption of vitamin A increased morbidity and severity of AA. Beside these relations between enterococci and bone problems in chickens, there is only one study reporting the isolation of an Enterococcus species, Enterococcus cecorum, from femoral head necrosis lesions of broiler chickens. Poultry production is regarded as the most heavily medicated sector among animal husbandry, where antibiotic resistant bacteria, including enterococci, can gradually emerge. Then, through this source, they can find ways to transmit to humans directly or indirectly through the consumption of meat, fish, and vegetables. Furthermore, these resistant enterococci can persist longer in the environment than faecal coliforms, which significantly increases their chance to re-infect animal or human hosts.
In this study, we aimed to both screen for the presence of Enterococcus strains in femoral head necrosis (FHN) lesions in commercial broilers, broiler and layer breeder chickens, and to examine the antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates.
Materials and methods
Samples: A total of 150 femoral articular tissue samples from the necrosis lesions of 121 commercial broiler chickens from a 30,000 capacity Ross breed commercial broiler flock of 18 broiler breeders from a Ross breed commercial broiler flock with 4000 capacity, and from 11 layer breeders of a 4000 capacity Isa Brown breed commercial layers with arthritis symptoms were obtained in sterile conditions for bacteriological analysis.
Bacteria: A gelatinase positive, cytolysin, and aggregation substance (AS) negative E. faecalis control strain was provided by Dr. Alper Ciftci, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ondokuz MayÄ±s University, Samsun, Turkey, and was used for control in experiments for growth, gelatinase, and cytolysin production, and for the presence of AS. E. faecalis OG1X and isogenic variants (Table 1) were kindly provided by Dr. Serap SavaÅŸan, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Adnan
Menderes University, AydÄ±n, Turkey. Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium), Escherichia coli (E. coli) ATCC 35283, and Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) strains were provided from the bacterial culture collection of the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, UludaÄŸ University, Bursa, Turkey.
Reference strain of E. faecalis ATCC 29212 was used as the control strain in antibiotic susceptibility tests.
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