Recognising the warning signs of mycotoxins in pigs
Why are mycotoxins a problem in pig production?
Produced by filamentous fungi (moulds) that are ever-present in nature, under the right conditions, mycotoxins have the potential to proliferate and contaminate almost all feedstuffs used in pig production. Mycotoxins are not unique to specific moulds, meaning various species can produce the same mycotoxins. There are also single species that produce numerous mycotoxin types. While the significant presence of just one mycotoxin can impact the well-being of pigs, smaller levels of multiple toxins often lead to more serious issues.
Most regulatory guidelines will advise on the safe levels of individual mycotoxins. However, these do not consider the cumulative effects of having multiple mycotoxins present in feed. This multi–mycotoxin challenge is continually demonstrated during mycotoxin testing at the Alltech 37+® mycotoxin analysis laboratories. In Alltech's 2020 European Summer Harvest Survey, the average number of mycotoxins in corn samples was 6.4. In wheat and barley, 95% of samples tested contained two or more mycotoxins. Corn samples analysed in the equivalent US survey contained an average of 5.9 mycotoxins, with almost 40% of samples posing a higher risk to sows/gilts when quantified using Alltech's Risk Equivalent Quantity (REQ).
What impact do mycotoxins have on pigs?
Pigs are particularly susceptible to the risk posed by mycotoxins. Ingestion of contaminated feed may impair a pig's cellular and tissue integrity, leading to an unhealthy imbalance of different physiological systems. These cause organ malfunction that results in depressed pig performance, decreased immunity and reduced health status. Zearalenone is an oestrogenic toxin (i.e., it mimics the action of the hormone) and therefore adversely affects reproductive function. Most mycotoxins can cause acute, but more often chronic, toxicosis in pigs. To the pig producer, these subclinical losses often pose greater economic shortfalls than those from acute effects but tend to be more difficult to diagnose.
How to manage mycotoxins in pig production?
Mycotoxin contamination is not a static situation; it changes dynamically day by day. Due to the invisible nature of these toxic compounds, even without signs of mould, there can still be a threat of contamination, making detection more complex. Applying a continuous and well-prepared preventative strategy will help to reduce adverse effects. It should be based on HACCP principles, such as detailed risk and hazard analysis, covering the complete feed supply process, housing, farm management and health status of animals.
By spotting issues early, you can take steps to mitigate the impact of mycotoxins on your pigs' natural immunity and, subsequently, production profitability.
Here are 10 common warning signs that all pig producers should watch out for when it comes to detecting a mycotoxin problem:
1. Visible moulds in pig feedstuffs
Moulds can grow either before or after harvest, during storage, and contaminate almost all pig feed ingredients. Producers must monitor potential contamination in feed production, transportation and distribution. Sometimes, the mould infection is visible, allowing you to identify the potential risk and follow preventative actions. However, mycotoxins are not visible to the naked eye and require specialised detection techniques.
2. Measurement and data recording
We often miss the signs of mycotoxins in animals until they are already causing performance losses. Detailed and accurate measurement-based data recording gives a good basis to survey the situation correctly and develop an effective prevention strategy. A slight shift in feed conversion efficiency can easily cause serious economic losses and is just one example of the different performance parameters that can draw your attention to the potential presence of mycotoxins.
3. Reduced feed intake in pigs
Sometimes, the simple presence of moulds can cause unfavourable changes in feed taste and/or smell, but in many other cases, their toxic by-products directly affect the appetite of pigs. In extreme cases, total feed refusal or intensive feed rooting is visible. More often, a slight drop in daily feed intake leads to notable performance losses, especially in average daily weight gain.
4. Inconsistent faeces
Increased visible signs of enteral disorders in a bigger swine group and even irregular faeces consistency — including changing from slightly softer manure to a highly watery texture containing blood or undigested feed — may indicate a multi-mycotoxin challenge. The severity of some pathogens (e.g., E. coli, Salmonella, LawsoniaandSerpulina species) could also be increased.
5. Reproduction challenges
Multi-toxin-contaminated feed can lead to unexpected drops in reproduction performance. The breeding gilts, boars and sows can each be impacted, while piglets can also show signs of intrauterine mycotoxin exposure, such as enlarged vulvas or necrotic teats. Boars may exhibit reduced libido and decreased sperm quantity. Irregular heats in sows or longer weaning to oestrus interval should be seen as a potential issue. Equally, increased stillbirths, lower than normal litter size or reduced piglet vitality can be among mycotoxin-contamination symptoms. Reduced milk let-down from the sow may also lead to inadequate piglet growth performance.
6. General pig health status
This is one of the most difficult impacts of mycotoxin ingestion to determine. However, increased culling and higher mortality can point us toward potential mycotoxin issues in swine herds. Reduced success with vaccination programs, increasing infection outbreaks due to pathogens or simply elevated medicine costs can also indicate toxicosis-related issues.
7. Increased incidence of prolapses
Increased rectal and/or urogenital prolapses can quickly point to a mycotoxin issue. While there could be different causes of these symptoms, it is one of the clinical signs most frequently attached to pigs ingesting mycotoxins. Changes to organ ligaments are a direct effect, while frequent diarrhoea from abdominal pressure is one of the most likely indirect symptoms.
8. Altered pig behaviour — vomiting
Lethargy or even overexcited visible stress in bigger animal groups can be connected to mycotoxin contamination. Munching, foaming of saliva around the mouth and, more often, increased vomiting can draw our attention to a potential mycotoxin situation.
9. Increased skin sensitivity
Increased skin sensitivity, leading to skin lesions at the tops of the ears or on tails, can have several contributing factors. Still, mycotoxin contamination should not be ruled out as a potential cause.
10. Drop in pig performance parameters
Research continually demonstrates the negative impacts of mycotoxins on animal performance. However, impacts may not always be obvious in swine herds. Loss of homogeneity in same-aged groups, slight changes in daily feed intake and growth parameters or reduced feed efficiency can all indicate a subtle mycotoxin issue and lead to significant economic loss. More severe sudden changes, like increased mortality, could indicate acute contamination and should be investigated immediately.
Mycotoxins are an unavoidable problem in pig production; there is no effective way to entirely eliminate their presence. However, that does not mean there is nothing you can do to help mitigate their adverse effects. Alltech provides a suite of modern detection services that will help you uncover the hidden threat in your feed.
Producers looking for real-time mycotoxin detection can look to Alltech RAPIREAD®. Suitable for detecting seven of the main mycotoxins in individual feed ingredients and integrating both the Neogen Raptor® test device and easy-to-use online analysis tools, this rapid-test platform offers in-depth analysis and real-time actionable advice backed by reliable data.
For producers looking for a broader view of mycotoxin contamination, Alltech 37+® mycotoxin analysis can bring a comprehensive array of hidden challenges to light. The cornerstone of the Alltech® Mycotoxin Management program, this laboratory-based testing service can identify up to 54 individual mycotoxins in feed samples and is suitable for testing both raw materials and complete feeds.
Mitigating a mycotoxin problem in the animal
After identifying the mycotoxins contaminating your raw materials and pigs' feed, the next step is mitigation using a mycotoxin adsorbent, such as Mycosorb A+® from Alltech in the pigs' diet. Mycosorb A+ reduces mycotoxin absorption within the animal, offsetting the risks to health and productivity associated with mycotoxin-induced damage.
To learn more about the Alltech Mycotoxin Management program, visit knowmycotoxins.com
For more of the article, please click here.
Article made possible through the contribution of Dr. Radka Borutova and Alltech