May 7, 2014
Large temperature fluctuation hinders poultry disease control in China (China Animal Disease Update)
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China Animal Disease Update (April 2014)
FMD, PRRS, eperythrozoonosis and streptococcal disease
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is found in Guangdong, Guangxi, Shandong and Hebei province. The situation is not serious and there is no death of pig reported. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), FMD and eperythrozoonosis are found in Shandong Yantai. PRRS, FMD and streptococcal diseases are found in local farms in Hebei Shijiazhuang.
Swine Eperythrozoonosis Overview
Eperythrozoonosis is widespread in the pig production industry. It causes anaemia, death of pigs and economic loss of farms. This disease can occur in all ages of pigs, but the mortality rate of piglets and feeder pigs are relatively higher. The mortality and elimination rate reach 30% - 50% during the incubation period. Eperythrozoonosis is not a seasonal disease, but it happens more frequently in warm season with temperature above 20 degree Celcius and humidity at around 70%. It is mainly spread by blood-sucking insects, pig lice, mites and ants. The disease could also be transmitted from sows to piglets through the placenta.
Eperythrozoonosis Clinical Symptoms
Acute type of eperythrozoonosis is less common in hog farms. It results in sudden death of pigs with bleeding nose and purple body. Death could occur between a few minutes to three days from the appearance of symptoms.
For sub-acute type of disease, infected pigs will suffer from loss of appetite, increase desire to drink and fever during the early stage of infection. The infected pigs will eventually lose all appetite and the desire to drink will decrease. It will start to tremble, be unwilling to stand, urine will be scanty and diarrhoea or constipation may happen. Skin on their ears, neck, cheek, belly and legs will turn purple and yellowish sweat will appear from their pores. Two hind legs of some pigs will be paralysed, causing them to be unable to stand. Some pigs will experience salivation, dyspnea, coughing and conjunctival inflammation. It takes three to seven days from the start of symptoms before the condition turns chronic or even death.
For chronic type of disease, the body temperature of infected pigs stays at around 39.5 degree Celcius. The infected pigs will suffer from poor appetite, anaemia, jaundice, dry and cracked skin, yellow skin and conjunctiva, and dark brown to bright red blood stools. Blood collection from the vein of the pig's ear can be used for further diagnosis of the disease. Blood collected from infected pigs is smooth without stickiness and presence of blood clotting can be observed.
Eperythrozoonosis Prevention and Treatment Programme
As prevention, flavomycin, oxytetracycline and aureomycin are recommended for all pigs during the season with a high rate of incidence.
For treatment, oxytetracycline should be used for infected pigs, and veterinarians have recommended injection of 30mg of oxytetracycline per kg of body weight. One injection is needed every two days and three injections are needed in total. At the same time, 2ml of iron dextran injection, 2-5ml of VB12 injection and 10ml of bupleurum injection are needed for each infected pig. These generally help to control the disease and lower the body temperature of infected pigs.
Chronic respiratory infections, E. coli and Avian airsacculitis
In mid-April, no large-scale broiler disease outbreak in the northern region is observed. The major concerns are common diseases, including chronic respiratory infections, E. coli and avian airsacculitis. Large temperature difference between morning and evening in some northern provinces increased the difficulties of controlling chicken diseases. Incidence rate of the disease on 25-35 days old chicks increases drastically.
In Henan, 43-day-old broilers suffered from coughing and snoring, which is also commonly found in other provinces due to the large temperature difference. Veterinarians suggested using doxycycline, antiviral medicine together with traditional Chinese medicine as treatment. At the same time, producers need to strengthen their management of disinfection in farms.
In southern provinces, coccidiosis and chronic respiratory infections are commonly found due to the rainy weather.
Prevention and treatment of common dairy disease
There is no serious outbreak of dairy disease in April as frms pay close attention to the prevention and treatment of common diseases. For dairy cows, which energy is mainly used for producing milk and feeding calves, immunity is relatively weak. Mastitis, metritis and bovine laminitis are common in spring, so prevention of disease is necessary during production.
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