Poultry
xClose

Loading ...
Swine
xClose

Loading ...
Dairy & Ruminant
xClose

Loading ...
Aquaculture
xClose

Loading ...
Feed
xClose

Loading ...
Animal Health
xClose

Loading ...
Publication
 
FEED Business Worldwide - April, 2012
 
Mitigating heat stress through water hygiene

by Novus International, www.novusint.com 
 
 
From brooding up to the day of harvest, birds are subjected to varying degrees of temperature-induced stress. Especially stress associated with high temperature coupled with high humidity.
 
"During periods of high moisture in the air, the heat 'felt' by the birds is higher than the actual thermometer reading," says Dr. Ajay Bhoyar, Head of Technical Services for South East Asia. "The natural response is that birds will consume two to four times the amount of water they normally use."
 
The U.S. National Weather Service developed a temperature-humidity index* that gives a single numerical value in the range from 70 to 80 that reflects outdoor atmo­spheric conditions of temperature and humidity in terms of comfort (or discomfort) during warm weather.
 
"When heat is combined with high relative humidity it feels warmer than it actually is be­cause there is an increased conduction of heat to the body combined with a lessening of the cooling effect afforded by evaporation," he says. "Even with controlled-environment houses, this poses a major management challenge."
 

Physiological Response of Poultry to Ambient Temperature

Conditions

Temperature - Degrees Celsius

Response

Cold Stress

<10

Exhaustion

Cool

10 - 18

Adjustment

Optimum

18 - 20

Optimum Performance

Warm

24 - 30

Adjustment

Heat Stress

>30

Exhaustion

Source: VenCobb 400 Broiler Management Manual


According to Dr. Bhoyar, the typical reaction for birds is to consume less feed, which naturally controls the rise in core body temperature. There is a rise in respiration rates and a marked increase in insensible heat loss by evaporation of water from the lungs. Depending upon temperature and age, birds will drink at least two to four times the amount of water they normally require.
 
There are a variety of approaches that can be used to relieve heat stress in commercial broiler operations including   lowering of temperature in sheds, feeding and water management and supplementation of stress-relieving nutri­ents through drinking water.
 
"Generally, feed with low nutrient density is offered to combat heat stress," says Dr. Bhoyar.  "This reduced protein content coupled with naturally lowered feed consumption and an increased need for certain nutrients require it to come through the birds' drinking water."
These are times when water hygiene is most critical.  If the drinking water is contaminated with high levels of pathogenic organisms during these periods of high water intake, it may lead to subsequent disease outbreak. Birds under stress have lowered immunity and are more vulnerable to all sorts of infections.
 
Water is a vital but mostly ignored nutrient that comprises about 70% of the total body mass of a broiler chicken. Wa­ter is involved in every aspect of poultry metabolism. It plays important roles in regulating body temperature, digesting food, and eliminating body waste. At normal temperatures, poultry consume at least twice as much water as they do feed. A safe and adequate supply of water is therefore essential for efficient poultry production.
"At Novus, we have developed a unique 3-in-1 water acidifier called ACTIVATE® WD MAX that reduces the pH of water efficiently and economically," explains Dr. Bhoyar. "It is the most effective water acidifier to maintain water safety so water-borne infections in broilers can be controlled."
 
ACTIVATE® WD MAX is a blend of HMTBa, formic and propionic acids which have proven an­tibacterial activity against E. coli, Salmonella spp., Clostridium spp., etc. The special blend of organic acids in ACTIVATE® WD MAX efficiently reduces the pH of drinking water at a relatively lower dose rate.
 

Effects of pH on Bacterial Growth

pH

E coli

Salmonella

Clostridium

6.4

++++

++++

++++

6

+++

+++

++++

5.8

++

++

++++

5.4

+

+

+

5

-

+

++

4.5

-

-

+

4

-

-

-

Source: Susan Watkins etl al., 2005

 
"Along with sanitizing the water and reducing pH levels, the active ingredients in ACTIVATE® WD MAX work together," says Dr. Bhoyar. "Producers get optimum broiler performance and better returns on investment, even during periods of stress. After all, healthier birds are more productive birds."
 
 
The above are excerpts, full versions are only available in FEED Business Worldwide. For subscriptions enquiries, e-mail membership@efeedlink.com
Share this article on FacebookShare this article on TwitterPrint this articleForward this article
Previous
My eFeedLink last read